Armstrong_PedaBiblio (pdf)


Arp, Hans, and El Lissitzky, eds. The Isms of Art. Zurich: Eugen Rentsch, 1925.

Ash, Jared, et al. The Russian Avant-Garde Book 1910–1934. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2002.

Bartram, Alan. Futurist Typography and the Liberated Text. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.

Bayer, Herbert, Walter Gropius, and Ise Gropius.Bauhaus 1919–1928. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1938.

Bayer, Herbert. “On Typography.” In herbert bayer: painter designer architect. New York: Reinhold, 1967, 75-77.

Cohen, Arthur A. Herbert Bayer: The Complete Work.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984.

Dachy, Marc. The Dada Movement 1915–1923. New York: Rizzoli, 1990.

Drucker, Johanna. The Visible Word: Experimental Typography and Modern Art. 1909–1923. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Gray, Nicolete. A History of Lettering: Creative Experiment and Letter Identity. Oxford: Phaidon Press, 1986.

Heller, Steven. Merz to Émigré and Beyond: Avant-Garde Magazine Design of the Twentieth Century.London: Phaidon, 2003.

Hultén, Pontus. Futurism and Futurisms. New York: Abbeville Press, 1986.

Jaffe, Hans. De Stijl, 1917–1931: Visions of Utopia.Minneapolis: Walker Art Center, 1982.

Kostelanetz, Richard, ed. Moholy-Nagy: An Anthology.New York: Da Capo Press, 1991.

Lissitzky-Küppers, Sophie. El Lissitzky: Life, Letters, Text. Translated by Helene Aldwinckle and Mary Whittall. London: Thames and Hudson, 1968.

Lissitzky, El. “Our Book.” In El Lissitzky: Life, Letters, Texts. Edited by Sopie Lissitzky-Küppers. Translated by Helene Aldwinckle. London: Thames and Hudson, 1968, 356–359.

Lupton, Ellen and J. Abbott Miller, eds. The ABC’s of Triangle, Square, Circle: The Bauhaus and Design Theory. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000.

Margolin, Victor. The Struggle for Utopia: Rodchenko, Lissitzky, Moholy- Nagy, 1917–1946. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

McLean, Ruari. Jan Tschichold: Typographer. Boston: D.R. Godine, 1975.

Marinetti, F. T. “The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism.” In Critical Writings: F. T. Marinetti. Edited by Günter Berghaus. Translated by Doug Thompson. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006, 11–17.

Moholy-Nagy, László. “Typophoto.” In Painting Photography Film. Translated by Janet Seligman. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1973, 38–40.

Passuth, Krisztina. Moholy-Nagy. London: Thames and Hudson, 1987.

Richter, Hans. Dada: Art and Anti-Art. London: Thames & Hudson, 1966.

Rodchenko, Aleksandr. “Who We Are: Manifesto of the Constructivist Group.” Aleksandr Rodchenko: Experiments for the Future. Edited by Alexander N. Lavrentiev. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2005, 143–145.

Rowell, Margit and Deborah Wye. The Russian Avant-Garde Book: 1910–1934. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2002.

Spencer, Herbert. Pioneers of Modern Typography.London: Lund Humphries, 1969.

Tschichold, Jan. “The Principles of the New Typography.”The New Typography: A Handbook for Modern Designers. Translated by Ruari McLean. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998, 64–84.

Tschichold, Jan. Asymmetric Typography. Translated by Ruari McLean. New York: Reinhold, 1967.

Tschichold, Jan. The Form of the Book: Essays on the Morality of Good Design. Translated by Hajo Hadeler. Point Roberts, WA: Hartley & Marks, 1991.

Van Doesburg, Theo, Hans M. Wingler, and H. L. C. Jaffé. Principles of Neo-Plastic Art. Translated by Janet Seligman. Greenwich, CT: New York Graphic Society, 1968.

Warde, Beatrice. “The Crystal Goblet, or Why Printing Should Be Invisible.” In The Crystal Goblet: Sixteen Essays on Typography. Cleveland: World Publishing, 1956, 11–17.



Benjamin, Walter. Reflections: Essays, Aphorisms, Autobiographical Writings. Edited by Peter Demetz. Translated by Edmund Jephcott. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978.

Blackwell, Lewis and David Carson. “Conversation.” InThe End of Print: The Graphic Design of David Carson.London: Laurence King Publishing, 1995, 27–29.

DeKoven, Marianne. Utopia Limited: The Sixties and the Emergence of the Postmodern. Durham: Duke University Press, 2004.

Gerstner, Karl. Designing Programmes. Zurich: Niggli, 1968.

Gerstner, Karl. Review of 5 x 10 Years of Graphic Design etc. Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany: Hatje Cantz, 2001.

Greiman, April. Hybrid Imagery: The Fusion of Technology of Graphic Design. New York: Watson-Guptill, 1990.

Heller, Steven. Paul Rand. London: Phaidon Press, 1999.

Hollis, Richard. Swiss Graphic Design: The Origins and Growth of an International Style, 1920–1965. London: Laurence King, 2006.

Lupton, Ellen and J. Abbott Miller. Design Writing Research: Writing on Graphic Design. New York: Kiosk, 1996.

McCoy, Katherine with David Frej. “Typography as Discourse.” ID 35, no. 5 (March/April 1988): 34–37.

McCoy, Katherine and Michael McCoy. Cranbrook Design: The New Discourse. New York: Rizzoli, 1990.

Marchand, Roland. Creating the Corporate Soul: The Rise of Public Relations and Corporate Imagery in American Big Business. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

Marcuse, Herbert. One-Dimensional Man: Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society. Boston: Beacon Press, 1991.

McLuhan, Marshall. The Gutenberg Galaxy: the Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966.

Müller, Lars, ed. Josef Müller-Brockmann. Baden: Lars Müller, 1994.

Müller-Brockmann, Josef. The Graphic Designer and His Design Problems. New York: Hastings House, 1983.

Müller-Brockmann, Josef. “Grid and Design Philosophy.” In Grid Systems in Graphic Design: A Visual Communication Manual for Graphic Designers, Typographers, and Three-Dimensional Designers. 10. Niederteufen, Switzerland: Arthur Niggli, 1981.

Poynor, Rick. No More Rules: Graphic Design and Postmodernism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

Purcell, Kerry William. Josef Müller-Brockmann. New York: Phaidon Press, 2006.

Rand, Paul. Design Form and Chaos. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

Rand, Paul. “Good Design is Goodwill.” AIGA Journal of Graphic Design 5, no. 3 (1987): 1–2, 14.

Rand, Paul. Thoughts on Design. London: Studio Vista, 1970. Scher, Paula. Make It Bigger. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002.

Venturi, Robert, Denise Scott Brown and Steven Izenour. Learning from Las Vegas. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977.

Weingart, Wolfgang. “Fourth Independent Project: Letters and Typographic Elements in New Context” and “Fifth Independent

Project: Typography as Endless Repetition.” In My Way to Typography. Translated by Katherine Wolff and Catherine Schelbert. Baden: Lars Müller, 2000, 268–272 and 308–321.



Abrams, Janet and Peter Hall, eds. Else/Where: Mapping New Cartographies of Networks and Territories.Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Design Institute, 2006.

Bierut, Michael, William Drenttel, and Steven Heller, eds.Looking Closer 5: Critical Writings on Graphic Design.New York: Allworth Press, 2007.

Bennett, Audrey, ed. Design Studies: Theory and Research in Graphic Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006.

Fiell, Charlotte and Peter Fiell, eds. Graphic Design for the 21st Century: 100 of the World’s Best Designers.Cologne: Taschen, 2003.

Galloway, Alexander R. and Eugene Thacker. The Exploit: A Theory of Networks. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, 2007.

Hara, Kenya. Designing Design. Translated by Maggie Kinser Hohle and Yukiko Naito. Baden: Lars Müller, 2007.

Helfand, Jessica and John Maeda. “Dematerialization of Screen Space.” In Screen: Essays on Graphic Design, New Media, and Visual Culture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2001, 35–39.

Heller, Steven and Veronique Vienne, eds. Citizen Designer: Perspectives on Design Responsibility. New York: Allworth Press, 2003.

Heller, Steven. “Underground Mainstream.” Design Observer blog, entry posted on April 10, 2008. (accessed June 4, 2008).

Ilyin, Natalia. Chasing the Perfect: Thoughts on Modernist Design in Our Time. New York: Metropolis, 2006.

Klein, Naomi. No Logo. New York: Picador, 2002.

Lasn, Kalle. Design Anarchy. Vancouver: Adbuster Media, 2006.

Lasn, Kalle. Culture Jam: The Uncooling of America. New York: Eagle Brook, 1999.

Laurel, Brenda. Utopian Entrepreneur. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.

Manovich, Lev. “Import/Export, or Design Workflow and Contemporary Aesthetics.” (accessed April 28, 2008).

Manovich, Lev. The Language of New Media. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.

Lévy, Pierre. Cyberculture. Translated by Robert Bononno. Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Press, 2001.

Lovink, Geert. Zero Comments: Blogging and Critical Internet Culture. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Lupton, Ellen and Julia. “All Together Now,” Print 61, no. 1 (January/February 2007): 28–30.

Maeda, John. The Laws of Simplicity: Design, Technology, Business, Life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.

Poynor, Rick. Jan van Toorn: Critical Practice.Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 2008.

Rick Poynor “First Things First Manifesto 2000,” AIGA Journal of Graphic Design 17, no. 2 (1999): 6–7.

Rock, Michael. “The Designer as Author.” Eye 5, no. 20 (Spring 1996): 44–53.

Siegel, Dmitri. “Designing Our Own Graves.” Design Observer blog. (accessed April 27, 2008).

Toorn, Jan van. “Design and Reflexivity.” Visible Language 28, no. 4 (1994): 316–325.

Toorn, Jan van. Design’s Delight: Method and Means of a Dialogic Approach. Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 2006.

Wild, Lorraine. “The Macrame of Resistance.” Emigre 47 (Summer 1998). 14–23.



Adams, Hazard and Leroy Searle, eds. Critical Theory Since 1965. Tallahassee: Florida State University Press, 1986.

Barthes, Roland. Image/Music/Text. Translated by Stephen Heath. New York: Hill and Wang, 1977.

Baudrillard, Jean. For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign. Translated by Charles Levin. St. Louis.: Telos Press, 1981.

Bourdieu, Pierre. Language and Symbolic Power.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991.

Derrida, Jacques. Of Grammatology. Translated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.

Drucker, Johanna and Emily McVarish. Graphic Design History: A Critical Guide. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2008.

Eskilson, Stephen J. Graphic Design: A New History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.

Foucault, Michel. “What Is an Author?” In Josué Harari, ed. Textual Strategies: Perspectives in Post-Structuralist Criticism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979, 142–160.

Hollis, Richard. Graphic Design: A Concise History (World of Art). London: Thames & Hudson, 1994.

Jubert, Roxane. Typography and Graphic Design: From Antiquity to the Present. Translated by Deke Dusinberre and David Radzinowicz. Paris: Flammarion, 2006

Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

Millman, Debbie. How to Think Like a Great Graphic Designer. New York: Allsworth Press, 2007.

Tyson, Lois. Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide. New York: Routledge, 2006.



Armstrong_PedaBiblio  (pdf)

The following bibliography suggests useful texts for graphic design educators. The materials listed are not exhaustive. They are simply intended to inspire educators in their quest for provocative classroom material.

Barnard, Malcolm. Graphic Design as Communication.London: Routledge, 2005. Barnard argues that the function of graphic design is communication. It should be “treated as a language rather than an art form.” He considers this language in relation to modernism, postmodernism and globalization, as well as a range of post-structuralist theoretical approaches.

Bennett, Audrey, ed. Design Studies: Theory and Research in Graphic Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006. This scholarly collection of contemporary essays applies quantifiable research to the practice of graphic design. The book as a whole encourages designers to develop research-oriented practices that are “more inclusive of audience input and interdisciplinary expertise.”

Biesele, Igildo G. Graphic Design Education. Zurich: ABC Verlag, 1981. This book provides seventeen overviews of various graphic design courses from around the world. Visual examples of student projects follow each course overview. The course descriptions are too broad to actually apply to the development of specific syllabi. They are more useful as a gauge of what was going on internationally in design programs in 1981.

Bringhurst, Robert. The Elements of Typographic Style.Point Roberts, WA: Hartley and Marks, 2004. This book became a cult classic for book designers in the 1990s. In it Bringhurst establishes pragmatic guidelines for typography using a sometimes poetic tone.

Buxton, Bill. Sketching User Experiences: Getting the Design Right and the Right Design. Boston: Elsevier, 2007. This is an informative book for any design educator. Buxton urges us to focus more on the design of the design process than the design of the product. An effective way to do this, he argues, is by “sketching” (prototypes, demos, sketches, models, simulations). Through this book he also encourages educators to integrate into their classrooms more scholarship, a sense of history and a collaborative approach to the design process. The book includes provocative interviews and real world examples.

Dondis, Donis A. A Primer of Visual Literacy. Cambridge: MIT, 1973. This is a basic handbook that attempts to foster universal visual literacy. The text isolates elements of visual language (color, tone, line, etc.) and then applies them through techniques (symmetry, repetition, etc.). Each section includes simple classroom exercises. The additional discussion of media context is now a bit dated.

Drucker, Johanna and Emily McVarish. Graphic Design History: A Critical Guide. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2008. Drucker and McVarish provide a critical approach to design history. They consistently revisit the “link between graphic works and the social forces and conditions of their production” as they carry the reader from 35,000 B.C. to the present. The book feels very much like a textbook. Bullet points and timelines capture key events in each chapter.

Foote, Cameron S. The Creative Business Guide to Running a Graphic Design Business. New York: Norton & Co, 2001. This is a practical guide to forming and managing a graphic design business. This is increasingly useful for students as many are attempting to launch their careers initially as freelancers instead of employees.

Garland, Ken. Graphics Handbook. New York: Reinhold, 1966. Garland grounds this basic introduction to the production of graphic design in the tools and technologies of the day (1966). For this reason the book itself is dated as a contemporary classroom tool but fascinating for consideration of how the industry has been changed by the digital era.

Gerstner, Karl. Designing Programmes. Zurich: Niggli, 1968. In this book Gerstner develops a comprehensive system capable of generating a broad range of design solutions, and he connects this system to the field of computer programming. This book became a 1960s cult classic. It is receiving new attention as systems thinking once again moves to the forefront of design thought.

Hall, Sean. This Means This. That Means That: A User’s Guide to Semiotics. London: Laurence King, 2007. This basic introduction to semiot-ics puts into practice the decoding of signs. Seventy-six exercises ask the reader to first look at an image and then follow along as the authors decode the image while exploring a particular concept of meaning (sign, icon, index, symbol, etc.)

Heller, Steven. Design Literacy: Understanding Graphic Design. New York: Allworth, 2004. In this collection Heller examines 125 graphic design artifacts, putting each into cultural/historical context. Each essay is concise, breaking the book into quick manageable bites.

Heller, Steven. The Education of a Typographer. New York: Allworth, 2004. Heller presents a collection of essays about teaching typography, as well as sample course descriptions and projects.

Heller, Steven. Teaching Graphic Design. New York: Allworth, 2003. This book provides sample syllabi, assignments and projects from a wide range of sources for undergraduate and graduate graphic design classes.

Heller, Steven, and Elinor Pettit. Graphic Design Timeline: A Century of Milestones. New York: Allworth, 2000. This book presents an immensely useful timeline of graphic design from 1890 to 2000. It is, in essence, an efficient outline of graphic design history, allowing students to quickly put designers and their work into historical context.

Hollis, Richard. Graphic Design: A Concise History (World of Art). London: Thames & Hudson, 1994. Hollis’s compact, affordable graphic design history has been popular since its release in the early 1990s. Although primarily black and white, it includes some color images among its myriad visual examples of work. The text covers late 1800s to the early 1990s.

Jubert, Roxane. Typography and Graphic Design: From Antiquity to the Present. Translated by Deke Dusinberre and David Radzinowicz. Paris: Flammarion, 2006. This comprehensive, well-researched typographic history begins over 20,000 years ago and ends at the present day. It is richly illustration and amazingly thorough.

Kinross, Robin. Modern Typography: an Essay in Typography. London: Hyphen Press, 1994. This a wonderfully concise yet thorough history of typography. Kinross begins with the Enlightenment and ends with present day. It is a pleasure to read.

Kress, Gunther and Theo van Leeuwen. Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. New York: Routledge, 1996. This fairly academic text attempts to establish a grammar of the visual, drawing from established linguistic thought. Each chapter examines “compositional structures” which have become conventions in the course of the history of Western visual semiotics. The text then considers how these structures produce meaning.

Laurel, Brenda. Design Research: Methods and Perspectives. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003. This compilation of contemporary essays and case studies introduce designers to research tools crafted specifically for graphic design. The book covers “research into design, research through design, and research for design.” Many of the research methodologies consider design as part of an integrated system.

Lidwell, William, Kritina Holden, Jill Butler. Universal Principles of Design. Beverly, MA: Rockport, 2003. This book introduces 100 “general design considerations.” The authors attempt to isolate “key principles of design across disciplines” and then organize them in a clear concise, manner. The resulting principles would be particularly useful for teaching an interactive class.

Lindinger, Herbert. Ulm Design: The Morality of Objects.Cambridge: MIT, 1991. Lindinger examines the students, faculty and curriculum of the famous Hochscule Für Gestaltung Ulm (HfG). He also analyzes the work produced as well as the historical events that comprise the twelve year lifespan of the school.

Lupton, Ellen and Jennifer Cole Phillips. Graphic Design The New Basics. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2008. This is a concise yet comprehensive guide to two dimensional design that focuses on design’s formal structures. Lupton and Cole Phillips explore form from a 21st century standpoint, recognizing that universal form does not have to lead to universal meaning. They include in the book new elements of our visual vocabulary, like layering and transparency, that reflect the dramatic effects of the digital age upon contemporary design.

Lupton, Ellen. Thinking With Type: A Critical Guide for Designers, Writers, Editors & Students. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2004. Thinking with Type has set new standards for typographic manuals. It includes thoughtful historical background, comprehensive information about the structure and classification of type, as well as basic tenets of effective typography such as alignment and hierarchy. The appendix provides a plethora of additional pragmatic advice and information.

McQuade, Donald and Christine McQuade. Seeing and Writing 3. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2006. This quirky book continually asks the reader to examine and reexamine the relationship between image and text. It is full of provocative essays and images followed by visual and written exercises. Although primarily a textbook for composition classes, it is also useful for design studio discussions.

Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998. This broad graphic design history was monumental when it was first released in 1983. It has influenced every graphic design history produced in the last twenty years. This comprehensive text stretches from prehistory to the mid-1990s.

Moggridge, Bill. Designing Interactions. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007. This influential book explores the designing of interactions. It includes forty interviews with significant contributors to the interactive field. Moggridge explains his own views toward the end of the book as he encourages designers to focus upon understanding people first and then designing and redesigning prototypes to meet their needs.

Müller-Brockmann, Josef. Grid Systems in Graphic Design: A Visual Communication Manual for Graphic Designers, Typographers, and Three-Dimensional Designers. Niederteufen, Switzerland: Arthur Niggli, 1981. Müller-Brockmann examines the gird system in rigorous detail, showing students not only how to produce but also how to effectively use a grid system for graphic design. The logical, objective, efficient principles of International Style underlies his approach.

Poling, Clark V. Kandinsky’s Teaching at the Bauhaus: Color Theory and Analytical Drawing. New York: Rizzoli, 1986. Poling closely examines Wassily Kandinsky’s pedagogical approaches while at the Bauhaus (1922-1933). He includes over 200 samples of Kandinsky’s students’s work, some lecture notebooks and the necessary historical background to understand the material.

Purvis, Alston W. and Martijn F. Le Coultre. Graphic Design Twentieth Century. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2003. This is essentially a historical picture book. The images are large and lush. It’s useful for giving students a visual overview of the last century of design. Spitz, René. hfg ulm: The View Behind the Foreground. Stuggart: Axel Menges, 2002. Spitz documents the political history of the HGG. He considers the external circumstances of the school to bring readers to a new understanding of this famous institution. This is a huge, comprehensive volume.

Ruder, Emil. Typography. New York: Hastings House, 1981. Ruder’s classic modern typographic manual falls very much in the vein of International Style. He drives home clarity, precision and functionalism as the basis of effective typography. The multitude of accompanying illustrations explicate his typographic principles. This book clearly conveys the kind of typographic experiments performed at Basel during Ruder’s tenure there.

Tschichold, Jan. The New Typography: A Handbook for Modern Designers. Translated by Ruari McLean. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. Through this book Tschichold codified the ideals of New Typography. He originally created it as a guide for printers. It remains a useful introduction to modernist typography.

Twemlow, Alice. What is Graphic Design For? Hove: Rotovision, 2006. Twemlow explores the purpose of graphic design in this basic, introductory guide. She considers current design issues (cross-disciplinary design, designer as author, sustainability, etc.) in the first two sections of the book and then looks at the work of various influential designers and design firms in the last third.

Wick, Rainer K. Teaching at the Bauhaus. Ostifldern-Ruit: Hatje Cantz, 2000. This book explores pedagogical approaches at the Bauhaus, putting them into historical context, as well as expanding upon the sources of these approaches: individual Bauhaus artist/instructors. This is an informative, comprehensive overview of the curriculum at the school.